Comment on page
With Modulus, our vision is to build upon the most innovative blockchain tech, which is why we have opted to build Modulus as a zkEVM Layer 2. Our primary goal is to implement an opt in/out on chain privacy, opt in/out block explorer, custom bridge and a decentralised zkEVM. Building a Layer 2 on top of the Ethereum Mainnet foundation gives us the reliance of security and decentralisation, while improving on the scalability issue native to Ethereum L1.
Welcome to the Modulus Builders Portal.
Modulus is a decentralised Ethereum Layer 2 scalability solution that uses cryptographic zero-knowledge proofs to offer validity and quick finality to off-chain transaction computation, also known as a ZK-Rollup.
The ZK-Rollup executes smart contracts transparently, by publishing zero-knowledge validity proofs, while maintaining opcode compatibility with the Ethereum Virtual Machine.
These docs will represent a growing knowledge database on all things Modulus, and will be updated as we move further down our projected roadmap.
Given that Ethereum is subject to the DLT (distributed ledger technology) trilemma, it cannot scale beyond its transaction threshold without sacrificing decentralisation or security. This is where the zkEVM comes into play.
Modulus is a zkEVM. It is designed and developed to emulate the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) by recreating all existing EVM opcodes for transparent deployment of existing Ethereum smart contracts. This means Modulus is built to run on top of the Ethereum Mainnet, allowing increased throughput/scalability, and reduced fees when making transactions.
As Modulus is based on the architecture developed with the Polygon zkEVM, instead of reinventing the wheel, we have cited some references on how zkEVMs work from the Polygon documentation below.
In order to prove that the off-chain computations are correct, Modulus zkEVM employs verifiable zero-knowledge proofs as validity proofs. Although the Layer 2 zero-knowledge proofs are based on complex polynomial computations to provide validation and finality to off-chain transactions, the validity proofs are quick and easy to verify.
As a state machine, zkEVM carries out state changes, which come from executions of Ethereum’s Layer 2 transactions that users send to the network, and subsequently produces validity proofs attesting to the correctness of the state change computations carried out off-chain.
There are 3 main benefits to using zkEVM architecture:
EVM equivalence. As an EVM chain, the core language and contract structure used on all EVM chains is compatible with the zkEVM architecture. This means that any developer familiar with deployment on other EVM chains such as Polygon, Avalanche, or Ethereum itself will be able to use the same tools to develop and deploy on Modulus.
Ethereum security. The zkEVM sits on top of Ethereum Mainnet, so the underlying security of the mainnet is assured and at the base of every part of the zkEVM.
Scalability. Ethereum Mainnet is limited in that it is not currently scalable to the same degree as Layer 2’s. The ability to scale by compressing transaction data and taking computation off-chain means that throughput is much higher, processing more transactions per block. ZK also takes it further than Optimistic rollups, as they don’t need to post all the data to validate every transaction.
If you wish to learn more about zero knowledge and its benefits to the Ethereum ecosystem, you can find expanded information on the Ethereum website here: https://ethereum.org/en/developers/docs/scaling/zk-rollups/#scaling-ethereum-with-zk-rollups